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LA DISCRIMINACIÓN CHINA EN MÉXICO

LA DISCRIMINACIÓN CHINA EN MÉXICO
por Jorge Gómez Izquierdo (Publicada en zenzontle nov-1996)

Un hecho que a muchos nos parece increible y desconocido es la imagen de los mexicanos como discriminadores. La historia de México contiene muchas migraciones de pueblos y ”razas”, la multiculturalidad se da y se ha dado, en lo que ahora es el territorio mexicano. No podemos negar que existen pugnas raciales y discriminación en México. En muchos casos se ha arraigado costumbres y valores que se reflejan en los cantos, los dichos y los calificativos populares: ”pásele, güerita”, ”en qué le podemos servir, chatita”, ”negrita de mis pesares”, ”negro cambujo” , ”naco”, "morenazo!"... Aquí les ofrecemos extractos de la investigación de Jorge Gómez Izquierdo publicadas en su libro ”El movimiento antichino en México (1871-1934)” INAH,1991 México.

En México los chinos participaron en la construcción de ferrocarriles y en la industria minera, con sus acti-vidades ayudaron al dinamismo de las ciudades que surgían a lo largo del ferrocarril o en los distritos mineros. En 1896 llegaron 800 chin-os para las minas de cobre del po-blado de San Felipe en Coahuila.
Guaymas y Mazatlán fueron los principales puertos de entrada para los chinos al norte del país, ahí trabajaron durante la década 1900 a 1910 en la construcción del ferrocarril Sud-Pacífico. Los minerales de Cananea también requirieron de jornaleros chinos. Desde esta época Sonora y Sinaloa recibieron más chinos que cualquier otra región mexicana. Los estados norteños de Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa y Sonora concentraron a la mayoría de los inmigrantes chinos. Aunque éstos también se ubicaron en proporciones significativas en Chiapas, Oaxaca y Yucatán a partir de los años noventa. En 1890 llegaron a Chiapas desde Panamá comerciantes chinos que se establecieron con éxito en Tapachula. (Chieng Chieh Chang, The chinese in Latin America, Univ. of Maryland,1956).

PREJUICIOS RACIALES
Lo que me interesa destacar es la forma que adquirió el prejuicio racial antichino en el México de las últimas tres décadas del siglo XIX y de las tres primeras del siglo XX. El odio antichino en México es un caso histórico de manipulación de los prejuicios raciales, motivada por la consecución de ciertas metas políticas. Las pulciones antiextranjeras que existían entre los mexicanos antes de la revolución e 1910 llegaron a convertirse en uno de los factores coadyuvantes en la iden-tificación de los mexicanos en cuanto tales. En el odio a los extranjeros, los mexicanos de todas las clases se ”hermanaban”.La revolución de 1910 despertó en la población perspectivas de mejoramiento en sus condiciones de vida. Estas no se cumplieron, lo que sin duda ocacionó una frustración y una inconformidad que hubieran podido generar posibles estallidos. El relativo éxito de la colonia china se convirtió, para ciertos sectores nacionalistas de las sociedades norteñas, en el objeto sobre el cual podía descargar la inconformidad, el odio, la frustración y la envidia contenidas.

CAMPAÑAS ANTICHINAS
Alexander Mitscherlich plantea en su libro ”sobre la psicología del prejuicio” que ”La explotación de los seres humanos se lleva a cabo, sobre todo, con ayuda de los prejuicios. Si los oprimidos carecen de satisfacciones materiales y espirituales, si la pobreza engendra rencores y frustraciones, entonces las élites dominantes desvían los posibles estallidos sociales ofreciendo a los oprimidos objetos en los que puedan descargar sus resentimientos: les inventan enemigos, es decir, designan chivos expiatorios.
Buena parte de las ideas y argumentos que se utilizaron para definir la naturalesa del chino, estaban in-fluidos por la experiencia norteamericana en sus campañas antichinas.
La migración china a México creció durante el porfiriato, pero a partir de la revolución fue muy diferente.
El inicio del movimiento antichino lo marca la matanza de 303 chinos el 15 de mayo de 1911 en Torreón. Al tomar la ciudad las fuerza revolucionarias al mando de Emilio, hermano de Francisco I. Madero, entraron al Banco Chino donde los dueños, creyendo que era un robo, sacaron sus armas para defenderse, esto dio unicio a la masacre.

SE PROHIBIERON LOS MATRIMONIOS
Después del dificil período revolucionario, los chinos habían formado agrupaciones y partido políticos. Pero los gobiernos de los Estados (sobre todo en Sonora y Sinaloa) siguieron anulando sus derechos y hasta sus matrimonios con mexicanas, acusándolos además de mercadear drogas. A partir de 1930, por decretos de Estado, se les persiguió y deportó hasta casi el exterminio.

Censo año 1895 1910 1921 1927 1930 1940

Hombres 907 13 203 14 498 24 218 17 865 4 856
Mujeres 22 80 185 1 772 2 522 110

Censos de la Sria. de Gobernación, Extranjeros Chinos (en las mujeres se cuenta a las mexicanas casadas, pues perdían la nacionalidad).

Comments:
Ora, pues no sabía. Siempre he considerado que México más que ser racista es clasista. Por lo menos en mi historia eso ha sido lo más claro. Una persona morena puede, por ejemplo, ser tratado MUY diferente de otra persona morena por el hecho de que viene de otra familia, de que tiene lana o de que en general, se aprecia de alguna manera la CLASE SOCIAL en que vive. Vaya, después de dos o tres generaciones, los razgos físicos de los hijos oficiales de españoles con mexicanos no eran muy diferentes a los de los nativos o de los hijos "no-oficiales". Pero de cualquier manera era importante diferenciar cuáles eran de la casa grande o hijos de a deveras o no. El sistema clasista lo permitía, el sistema racista no. Hasta la fecha puedo ver eso en México, que son los de las clases altas los que son tratados de cierta manera y que en muchos casos no es sencillo notar solamente por el tono de piel o los razgos faciales quiénes están en cuál clase. Creo que es la combinación de actitudes, vestimenta y léxico lo que permite separar las clases sociales de manera efectiva en México. Por lo menos esa es mi opinión.
Quizá por eso todavía me resulta fácil poder adaptar ese modelo a los chinos. De manera directa es posible diferenciar a alguien por como se ve (no hay chinos dentro de la hegemonía social mexicana) y es la raza lo que distingue la CLASE. Te suena coherente lo que digo?
 
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